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The relationship between sleep aids and stress management

Sleep aids are rapidly growing in popularity across the globe, posting a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.5 percent between 2012 and 2017 to reach retail sales of US$2.3 billion in 2017, according to market research firm Euromonitor International. Driven by an increasingly stressed and sleepless consumer base, particularly in the developed world, sleep aids are expected to continue growing through 2022.

Stress and sleep management are essentially one in the same when looking at consumer response: lack of sleep leads to increased stress, which results in an increase in reported sleeplessness. As a stressed consumer base turns to over-the-counter (OTC) sleep aids for relief, products positioned to address both conditions will continue to grow in popularity.

Sleep Aids Among Fastest-Growing OTC Categories

Though retail sales of sleep aids amounted to just $2.3 billion in 2017—far below cough, cold and allergy remedies, which is the largest OTC category—sleep aids experienced strong growth over 2012-2017, second to emergency contraception, which posted a CAGR of 9.4 percent over the same period. Looking forward, sales of sleep aids are expected to post a CAGR of 2.6 percent globally through 2022, according to Euromonitor.

Sales of sleep aids are heavily affected by demographic and epidemiological factors, particularly in the developed world as consumers increasingly report higher levels of work- and family-related stressors as well as a decline in number of hours slept each night. As stress levels continue to increase, consumers will likely continue to turn to OTC sleep aids for relief.

Increasing Stress Levels

The most common sources for consumers’ increasing stress levels are their jobs, familial obligations and, often, pressure from peers or society to work harder and accomplish more to achieve perceived success. Surveys of consumers’ attitudes toward work/life balance and stress management activities indicate across global markets (though largely excluding the developing world), consumers report being more stressed and under more perceived pressure in 2016 than in previous years, and there is every reason to believe these attitudes will persist and strengthen in the coming years as well.

Since the market for sleep aids is tied so closely to stress management, any discussion of retail sales of products to promote sleep must necessarily include a discussion about the psychological health of the consumer base and their motivations for buying sleep aid products in the first place.

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Body boosting ingredients for the serious athlete

Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are incredibly popular with hardcore athletes and body builders. BCAAs include leucine, isoleucine and valine, which are essential amino acids that humans only get from food and beverage because the body doesn’t make them on its own. Among the benefits of BCAA products  are stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS), prevention of muscle breakdown and delaying of muscle fatigue.1

There are hundreds of BCAA products on the market, and some of the most popular brands include Cellucor, BPI Sports and Dymatize. BCAA supplements are most often sold as powders with sweet and citrus flavors, but brands such as Optimum Nutrition and Scivation have developed ready-to-drink (RTD) beverages, as well.

Collagen is the most abundant protein found in the human body and is the basis of connective tissues that help give structure to tendons, ligaments, skin, bones and teeth. It is also sold as a supplement in products that are rapidly growing in popularity. The ingredientworks with endogenous hyaluronic acid (HA) to improve joint health,2 enhance hair,3 skin4 and nails.5 As a bonus, it may also help repair muscle tissue, although whey and casein are generally regarded as more effective for that purpose.6

The source of the collagen isn’t quite so sexy. It comes from animals such as cattle, fish, turkeys and chickens, which means it is not vegan and can cause issues with a product’s kosher status. Allergenic concerns also need to be taken into consideration for sensitive consumers. Formulating with collagen can be challenging because it can have solubility issues, but brands such as Eviva Collagen Elixir, Beauty & Go and Pure Gold Collagen have successfully developed RTD collagen supplements. Many collagen protein powders are on the market, as well, including in  brands such as NeoCell, Ancient Nutrition, Vital Proteins and Sports Research.

Micellar casein is an up-and-coming ingredient for active consumers and is generally regarded as the most effective form of casein compared to similar ingredients like calcium caseinate. It is the slowest digested caseinate protein and is a source of high-quality BCAAs and glutamine.

“The mechanism of action is a stark contrast to hydrolyzed whey, which is known for fast-acting, quick absorption into the body,” explained Jason Dompeling, beverage scientist at Imbibe. “Micellar casein is known for very slow absorption. The casein micelles form a sort of ‘clot’ in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that slow down the protein breakdown and amino acid absorption.”

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Nitric oxide for sports performance

Nitric oxide (NO) is a critically beneficial molecule for sports nutrition due to its role in cardiovascular function. Previously viewed as a noxious atmospheric gas, research in the 1980s began to illuminate the role NO plays as an important chemical messenger. Named “molecule of the year” in 1992 by the journal Science (1992;258(5090):1861), NO received mainstream recognition in 1998 when three scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize for their discovery of the molecule’s benefits to cardiovascular health.

The principal benefits of NO are related to its function as a vasodilator. The production and release of NO in cells along the interior vascular wall triggers a complex set of metabolic reactions that result in vasodilation—the relaxation of smooth muscles, allowing for improved blood flow and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the muscles. Vasodilation contributes to health by reducing platelet aggregation, inhibiting molecules that promote vascular inflammation and reducing blood pressure(Current Vascular Pharmacology. 2012;(10):4-18)

The vascular endothelium is made up of a layer of cells along the interior of our blood vessels, directly above the smooth muscle layer. Agonists such as acetylcholine can activate receptors in this vessel layer to prompt synthesis of NO from arginine.

Choline helps to optimize NO in several important ways, the first being in triggering localized production in the vascular membrane. As free circulating acetylcholine in the blood, it stimulates eNOS production by activating the receptors on the endothelial wall (J Appl Physiol. 2005 Feb;98(2):629-32), thus contributing to higher NO levels(Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2003;29(1):41-51). Additional studies have suggested a novel role for cholinergic signaling mechanisms and acetylcholine release in regulating vascular function and endothelial cell migration and proliferation (J Physiol. 2016 Dec 15;594(24):7267-7307).

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Natural products industry eyes exclusions, new sources for China tariff relief

The Trump Administration has approved the latest round of superimposed tariffs on $200 billion worth of Chinese imports, including many dietary ingredients. The move places an immediate burden on the supply-side of the natural products industry, as companies scramble to figure out pricing and availability, while hoping for relief via an exclusion process. The effects, including any price increases, are not expected to impact retailers and consumers until a later date, possibly in mid- to late-2019.

President Trump announced the move Sept. 17 and set Sept. 24 as the effective date for this round of tariffs, known as “List 3.” Two previous rounds of tariffs were levied on a total of $50 billion worth of imports, primarily steel, aluminum and equipment.

After much speculation, Trump kept the List 3 tariffs at 10 percent, but this figure will rise to 25 percent on Jan. 1, 2019, if the trade war with China persists.

“We are taking this action today as a result of the Section 301 process that the USTR [U.S. Trade Representative] has been leading for more than 12 months,” Trump wrote in a statement published on the White House website. “After a thorough study, the USTR concluded that China is engaged in numerous unfair policies and practices relating to United States technology and intellectual property – such as forcing United States companies to transfer technology to Chinese counterparts.”

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