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Nitric oxide for sports performance

NutraCap Admin

Nitric oxide (NO) is a critically beneficial molecule for sports nutrition due to its role in cardiovascular function. Previously viewed as a noxious atmospheric gas, research in the 1980s began to illuminate the role NO plays as an important chemical messenger. Named “molecule of the year” in 1992 by the journal Science (1992;258(5090):1861), NO received mainstream recognition in 1998 when three scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize for their discovery of the molecule’s benefits to cardiovascular health.

The principal benefits of NO are related to its function as a vasodilator. The production and release of NO in cells along the interior vascular wall triggers a complex set of metabolic reactions that result in vasodilation—the relaxation of smooth muscles, allowing for improved blood flow and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the muscles. Vasodilation contributes to health by reducing platelet aggregation, inhibiting molecules that promote vascular inflammation and reducing blood pressure(Current Vascular Pharmacology. 2012;(10):4-18)

The vascular endothelium is made up of a layer of cells along the interior of our blood vessels, directly above the smooth muscle layer. Agonists such as acetylcholine can activate receptors in this vessel layer to prompt synthesis of NO from arginine.

Choline helps to optimize NO in several important ways, the first being in triggering localized production in the vascular membrane. As free circulating acetylcholine in the blood, it stimulates eNOS production by activating the receptors on the endothelial wall (J Appl Physiol. 2005 Feb;98(2):629-32), thus contributing to higher NO levels(Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2003;29(1):41-51). Additional studies have suggested a novel role for cholinergic signaling mechanisms and acetylcholine release in regulating vascular function and endothelial cell migration and proliferation (J Physiol. 2016 Dec 15;594(24):7267-7307).

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Natural products industry eyes exclusions, new sources for China tariff relief

NutraCap Admin

The Trump Administration has approved the latest round of superimposed tariffs on $200 billion worth of Chinese imports, including many dietary ingredients. The move places an immediate burden on the supply-side of the natural products industry, as companies scramble to figure out pricing and availability, while hoping for relief via an exclusion process. The effects, including any price increases, are not expected to impact retailers and consumers until a later date, possibly in mid- to late-2019.

President Trump announced the move Sept. 17 and set Sept. 24 as the effective date for this round of tariffs, known as “List 3.” Two previous rounds of tariffs were levied on a total of $50 billion worth of imports, primarily steel, aluminum and equipment.

After much speculation, Trump kept the List 3 tariffs at 10 percent, but this figure will rise to 25 percent on Jan. 1, 2019, if the trade war with China persists.

“We are taking this action today as a result of the Section 301 process that the USTR [U.S. Trade Representative] has been leading for more than 12 months,” Trump wrote in a statement published on the White House website. “After a thorough study, the USTR concluded that China is engaged in numerous unfair policies and practices relating to United States technology and intellectual property – such as forcing United States companies to transfer technology to Chinese counterparts.”

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Product offerings grow for the anxiety, stress, mood and sleep category

NutraCap Admin

Qualifying and quantifying the market for products that address anxiety, stress, mood and sleep is a little like trying to nail jelly to the wall or define “obscenity.” Regarding the latter, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart famously remarked in 1964 that “I know it when I see it” to describe his threshold test in Jacobellis v. Ohio. To some extent, this also applies to the market for products that address anxiety, stress, mood and sleep.

Products addressing anxiety, stress, mood and sleep are scattered all over the marketplace. No longer are innovation opportunities limited to over-the-counter (OTC) medications and dietary supplements.

GlobalData identified product innovation oriented around anxiety, stress, mood and sleep that spans nearly 30 different product categories. Product manufacturers are addressing these needs in categories as diverse as fruit, chocolate, yogurt and beer, to air fresheners, fabric conditioners, facial-care products and more.

Companies far and wide want a piece of the pie because the pie is big—and growing. GlobalData puts the global market for sleeping aids (classified as OTC health care products) at $US1.36 billion as of 2016. GlobalData expects this market will grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of just over 4.1 percent for the period from 2015 to 2020. GlobalData puts the U.S. market for sleeping aids at just under $375 million as of 2016, and projects that this market will expand at a CAGR of 3.5 percent for the period from 2015 to 2020.

But trying to measure a market like sleeping aids is not as easy as it used to be, as a growing amount of sleep-related product innovation is taking place outside of OTC health care products and supplements. It is not unusual today to see functional drinks, milk, tea, food products and even facial-care products promote enhanced sleep. Even within OTC medications, sleep aids have become a moving target as companies attempt to monetize interest in more natural and holistic formulations.

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A newcomer’s guide to the supplement industry

NutraCap Admin

According to the Council for Responsible Nutrition’s (CRN) Economic Impact Report, more than 750,000 Americans are employed by the dietary supplement industry in the United States. The industry is an eclectic bunch, spanning all age groups and backgrounds, specializations and skill sets, but one common trait exists: a desire to make an appreciable difference in people’s lives.

The hard work is paying off. Data from Nutrition Business Journal (NBJ) show the industry grew by 77 percent between 2005 and 2015—and it’s still growing! Thanks to industry’s commitment to product integrity, sound science and consumer safety, dietary supplements have become an integral part of health and wellness regimens across the nation, and the demand for more product and next-level innovation means the industry’s workforce is expanding.

For those who may have just entered the space, whether new to the workforce or a seasoned executive joining from a different industry, there’s a lot to learn about dietary supplements.To all the fresh faces feeling overwhelmed, a few things to know:

Dietary supplements are regulated. In 1994, Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA)—a law Steve Mister, president and CEO, CRN, once called “industry’s permission slip to exist.” DSHEA reaffirmed that supplements are regulated as a category of food—not drugs—and provided FDA with regulatory authority over the industry. With DSHEA serving as the law of the land, extensive regulations cover all facets of dietary supplement manufacturing, labeling and marketing.

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Sports nutrition retail shift offers growth opportunities to brands taking new approaches

NutraCap Admin

Let’s face it: the world feels like it is changing faster and more aggressively than any other time in recent history. In the sports nutrition industry, iron-clad brands are now showing cracks in their armor. This is especially true for legacy sports nutrition brands.

These brands are feeling the squeeze to stay relevant against an onslaught of emerging competitors that have entered the market due to today’s lower barrier of entry. Over the past decade, the increasing popularity of e-commerce has made it easier for brands to sell their products directly to consumers. This direct connection has given rise to a plethora of sports nutrition startups, that are in turn fragmenting the market and fundamentally changing how consumers purchase products.

Gone are the days of generating a reliable, perpetual growth trajectory through the previous sales and marketing models that fueled decades of industry success. These legacy sports nutrition brands now face pressure as consumer behaviors shift and the channel landscape changes. To win in the coming years, sports nutrition legacy brands need to reduce their reliance on and diversify their offline channels. Despite sports nutrition products being a relatively difficult category for consumers to shop for online without prior product knowledge, online sales continue to dramatically increase.

This increase of the self-directed consumer has given online retailers like Amazon a further cognizance to invest in the category. Simply put, the main question pondered by most legacy sports nutrition brands is not whether they should have an e-commerce presence, but rather what level of presence they need to grow. Regardless, the sooner legacy sports nutrition brands start building an e-commerce strategy, the better they will be able to compete with more agile, digitally native challengers.

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Probiotics proving beneficial to microbiome, overall well-being

NutraCap Admin

As Woody Allen said, bacteria—those microscopic organisms only visualized with a microscope’s help—were the first inhabitants of the Earth and will probably be the last to abandon it. They are also the most abundant living beings on the planet. Experts in microbial ecology calculate there exist about 50 nonillion bacteria (5X1030); this means for every human being on Earth, there are almost seven hundreds of quintillions of bacteria (7X1020). Interestingly, an important part of this microbial biomass lives inside the human body. All this was unknown 10 years ago. Thanks to the application of massive genomic sequencing techniques, in recent years, scientists have determined there are as many human cells in the body as bacteria inside. They are particularly numerous on the skin and in the digestive tract. If a person weighs approximately 155 pounds, 2.2 pounds consists of the bacteria that populate his/her digestive system. In fact, scientific experts have spoken about a neglected organ not described to date that has a transcendental relationship with one’s diet. The reason is clear: a person’s bacterial ecosystem is responsible for extracting energy from the diet and modifying or destroying ingested substances that may be healthy or deleterious to a person’s health.

This set of bacterial species that populate the human digestive tract is known as the gut microbiome. Each human being has their own particular gut microbiome, and no two are the same—it is like a fingerprint. However, there are similarities, so the gut microbiomes of healthy individuals can be classified into three groups, known as enterotypes. The gut microbiome can vary depending on age, diet, the use of drugs (mainly antibiotics) or state of health (e.g., disease, sickness). These changes are usually reversible and open the door to the development of new foods and dietary supplements that contain bacteria and/or metabolites (e.g., prebiotics) capable of returning the microbiome to its original condition or modifying it.

Consider the situation of individuals with celiac disease. Children with celiac disease have a different gut microbiome than healthy children. They have a high proportion of Enterobacteria species and less Bifidobacteria or Lactobacilli counts. This alteration is called dysbiosis and is, to some extent, responsible for the intestinal inflammation these patients exhibit. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study, children with celiac disease were given B. longum CECT 7347 or placebo daily for three months, together with a gluten-free diet (Br J Nutr. 2014;112:30-40). Results suggested Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli were increased and Enterobacteria were decreased in the CECT 7347 group, as compared to placebo.

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Sports nutrition performance ingredients

NutraCap Admin

Performance in sports goes beyond competition to include training or regular exercise. By definition, performance is the execution of an action or the ability or manner used in completing a task. Sports nutrition researchers define performance in terms of strength, power and endurance, as well as sport skills including speed, agility and reaction time. Recently, cognitive function—focus, processing and memory—has drawn rising interest in the market for its impact on overall sports performance.

It could be confidently said that all sports nutrition ingredients have an ultimate effect on performance, even if their primary benefit is in weight management or recovery.  However, many ingredients are researched for an influence on specific performance metrics used by sports nutrition researchers and, thus, have a more direct impact on performance.

Strength and power metrics are tied to the muscles, which are built and driven by protein/amino acids and energy. Each protein source, from dairy to plants and algae, has a unique profile of essential amino acids (EAAs) and specific rates of action. Whey is fast acting, while casein is slower. Each protein can play a role in muscle development and function, and blending different protein types is sometimes advantageous. The branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), specifically leucine, are EAAs singled out for muscle building. Leucine is considered a limiting factor in muscle protein synthesis (MPS), the process of building new muscle mass.

Also involved in muscle building is mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), a regulatory pathway for MPS. Leucine and ingredients such as HMB (beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate) may signal mTOR-activated muscle growth.

Protein boosters, which help increase MPS, and testosterone boosters are other popular categories of ingredients for strength and power.

On the energy side, which also plays into endurance, ingredients that support production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cellular energy molecule, can support performance gains. Creatine helps energize short bursts of activity, such as resistance training and sprinting, while carnitine helps shuttle fatty acids into the mitochondria for use in later stage energy production.

On the flip side, compounds that inhibit fatigue can also improve performance. Beta alanine and carnosine help buffer fatigue-causing ions in the muscles, whereas caffeine disrupts fatigue signaling in the brain and stimulates the central nervous system.

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Plant-based protein—new innovation

NutraCap Admin

“Plant Based will be the Hottest Food Trend of 2018,” reported the HuffPost last fall. While they were focused on reviewing foods that serve as replacements for burgers, fish, etc., protein in general has been on trend for several years. When thinking about plant-based protein, it’s important to explore plant-based protein as an ingredient for use in food and beverage products.

Some of the top plant-based proteins are pea, hemp and Sacha inchi (an indigenous Peruvian superfood). Pea protein is the most hypoallergenic of proteins available and delivers 100 percent of the recommended daily value of vitamin D. Hemp is rich in protein and fiber. Sacha inchi is an excellent source of vitamins A and E and fiber.

Developing products that include plant-based proteins such as these can meet consumer needs of protein and provide additional benefits, but how are they best incorporated into food and beverage products?

Beverages are a great place to start with plant-based proteins. Leading the initiatives are alternative milks. However, doing innovation with these types of beverages can be challenging. The production of alternative milks is expensive and the lack of capacity in manufacturing remains an issue. However, ingredient innovation is stepping up to provide solutions that allow plant protein to be utilized in finished products with greater success. Kerry’s ProDiem™ portfolio, for example, offers dairy-free, soy-free and vegan proteins, enabling developers to enhance the nutritional profile of their products such as powder nutritional beverages, ready-to-drink (RTD) beverages and nutritional bars without impacting flavor or texture. What’s interesting about this new ingredient developed by Kerry is the ability to develop a high-acid, low-PH product that can be used to manufacture in the hot-fill environment.

Developing a beverage as a hot fill is much more lucrative compared to trying to launch a low-acid beverage with aseptic manufacturing. This ingredient also gives the product innovator a way to launch a more refreshment-like product without earlier issues, such as chalkiness, which can be prevalent with more traditional protein-based beverages. Isopure—protein-fortified beverages presented as a clear, flavored-water product—was one of the original and only protein-based beverages with an ingredient to be able to accomplish this. Though it utilized whey protein, it presented a way to commercialize protein in a beverage as a more palatable option.

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Researched ingredients with anti-inflammatory effects

NutraCap Admin

• Short-term inflammation is a protective response, but chronic inflammation can have a negative effect on the human body.

• Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), Terminalia chebula, grape seed extract and magnolia are among the options for formulators.

• The anti-inflammatory market is projected to reach US$130.6 billion by 2026 with a CAGR of 8.5 percent from 2018 to 2026.

Inflammation is one of the body’s natural defense mechanisms, addressing hazardous stimuli such as tissue damage or allergens. On a short-term basis, inflammation can help the body return to a healthy state. However, according to a 2016 review, “Uncontrolled inflammatory response is the main cause of a vast continuum of disorders including allergies, cardiovascular dysfunctions, metabolic syndrome, cancer and autoimmune diseases.”1

While various pharmaceuticals are available to help control and suppress inflammatory crisis, the potential for side effects and the desire for a natural course of action lead many consumers to seek alternative solutions. The review noted several herbs with anti-inflammatory effects that have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies, including Curcuma longa (curcumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Borago officinalis (borage), evening primrose and devil’s claw. It also mentioned, “the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy,” and therefore, suggested “a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle.”

Blake Ebersole, president of NaturPro Scientific, pointed to palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) as an emerging anti-inflammatory ingredient that’s been studied in large trials in Europe. It’s a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) ligand that exerts anti-inflammatory, analgesic and neuroprotective actions.2 A 2014 review noted PEA was first identified as an anti-inflammatory compound more than half a century ago, but greater exploration didn’t occur until the mid-1990s. PEA was shown to reduce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a pro-inflammatory endotoxin)-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice, as well as mast cell degranulation and edema formation in various inflammatory models.3

The review mentioned more recent investigation of the anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PEA inhibited phosphorylation of kinases involved in activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κβ) and activator protein 1 (AP-1), as well as preventing degradation of the inhibitory IκB-α, which when associated to NF-κβ prevents its nuclear translocation.4,5

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U.S. Sales of Herbal Dietary Supplements Top $8 Billion, Growing 8.5% in 2017

NutraCap Admin

Total consumer spending on herbal dietary supplements in the U.S. reached an estimated $8.085 billion in 2017, according to a recently published HerbalGram Herb Market Report for 2017. The report, which appeared in issue 119 of the American Botanical Council’s (ABC’s) quarterly, peer-reviewed journal HerbalGram, noted this is the first time total U.S. retail sales of herbal supplements have surpassed $8 billion. In addition, the 8.5% increase in total sales from 2016 is the strongest growth for these products in more than 15 years.

ABC’s annual market report for herbal supplement sales is based on U.S. retail sales data from the Chicago, IL-based market research firms SPINS and IRI, as well as Nutrition Business Journal (NBJ), Boulder, CO. The report covers only retail sales of herbal dietary supplements and does not reflect the sales of most herbal teas, botanical ingredients used in cosmetics, or government-approved herbal drug ingredients in over-the-counter medicines.

The report was authored by Tyler Smith, managing editor of HerbalGram; Kimberly Kawa and Veronica Eckl, retail reporting analyst and associate data product manager, respectively, at SPINS; Claire Morton, senior industry analyst at NBJ; and Ryan Stredney, public relations and marketing specialist at IRI.

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